Several renal cell carcinoma (RCC) prognostic factors show promise, including K1-67, p53/mdm-2, and vascular endothelial growth factor. The combination of increased incidence of RCC and diagnosis during earlier stages has generated interest in local therapeutic options. Nephron-sparing surgery and laparoscopic nephrectomy continue to gain support and may become the standard of care in select patients. Standard therapy for metastatic disease continues to be cytokine-based therapy with little benefit gained from adding granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, retinoic acid, or adoptive immunotherapy. The addition of chemotherapy, such as capecitabine, floxuridine, and vinblastine, may increase the effectiveness of immunotherapy; nonmyeloablative stem cell transplantation has shown early promise in metastatic disease.