The revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire: R-SPQ-2F

Br J Educ Psychol. 2001 Mar;71(Pt 1):133-49. doi: 10.1348/000709901158433.


Aim: To produce a revised two-factor version of the Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) suitable for use by teachers in evaluating the learning approaches of their students. The revised instrument assesses deep and surface approaches only, using fewer items.

Method: A set of 43 items was drawn up for the initial tests. These were derived from: the original version of the SPQ, modified items from the SPQ, and new items. A process of testing and refinement eventuated in deep and surface motive and strategy scales each with 5 items, 10 items per approach score. The final version was tested using reliability procedures and confirmatory factor analysis.

Sample: The sample for the testing and refinement process consisted of 229 students from the health sciences faculty of a university in Hong Kong. A fresh sample of 495 undergraduate students from a variety of departments of the same university was used for the test of the final version.

Results: The final version of the questionnaire had acceptable Cronbach alpha values for scale reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit to the intended two-factor structure. Both deep and surface approach scales had well identified motive and strategy subscales.

Conclusion: The revision process has resulted in a simple questionnaire which teachers can use to evaluate their own teaching and the learning approaches of their students.

MeSH terms

  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Learning*
  • Male
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*
  • Teaching / standards*