Although several studies exist which have examined static functional neuroimaging following traumatic brain injury (TBI), controlled cognitive activation studies of episodic memory in this population have not been published. The present investigation studied verbal recall using [O-15]-water positron emission tomography (PET) in 5 individuals who sustained severe TBI (M GCS=6.8; M years post-injury=3.18), and 4 non-injured control participants. Statistical image analysis demonstrated changes in frontoparietal regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in both groups, but there were interesting differences between groups and across conditions. Frontal lobe rCBF changes in TBI patients were reduced during free recall but enhanced during recognition, when compared to controls. Changes in cerebellar rCBF were observed in the control group during free recall, but not in the TBI sample. In both groups, bifrontal rCBF increases were noted on recognition tasks. The present findings provide evidence of alterations in specific substrates involved in verbal recall following brain injury.