Epiretinal membranes (ERM) are a common finding in older patients. Although they may be associated with numerous clinical conditions, most epiretinal membranes occur in the absence of ocular pathology. Patients symptoms range from asymptotic to complaints of severe vision loss and metamorphopsia. Epiretinal membranes are commonly classified according to their density, to the severity of retinal distortion and to associated biomicroscopic changes. Pars plana vitrectomy has been found to be effective in removing ERM from the macula, improving the visual acuity and decreasing metamorphopsia. Both idiopathic and secondary ERMs do well after surgery, although secondary ERMs showed a greater amount of improvement than idiopathic ones. Complications are frequent including accelerated postoperative nuclear sclerosis, retinal breaks and RD, macular edema, RPE and, occasionally, macular hole and hypotony. However only RD involving the macula have a worsening prognosis on final outcome.