Increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and nitric oxide synthase-2 in human prostate cancer

Urol Res. 2001 Feb;29(1):23-8. doi: 10.1007/s002400000148.


Cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS-2) each have an important role in angiogenesis. The expression of these genes was investigated in human prostate cancer by immunohistochemistry, the expression of COX-1 and COX-2 being confirmed by mRNA analysis. Prostate cancer specimens from 12 patients were compared to control prostates from 13 patients operated on for bladder carcinoma. The intensity of COX-2 and NOS-2 immunostaining was significantly stronger in prostate cancer cells than in the non-malignant glandular epithelium of the control prostates. COX-2 and NOS-2 were clearly also expressed in the lesions of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) in control prostates. COX-2 was detected in the muscle fibres of the hyperplastic stroma of some control prostates. No significant difference was detected in COX-1 expression between control and cancer prostates. These results indicate that the expression of COX-2 and NOS-2 is elevated in prostatic adenocarcinoma and in PIN.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cyclooxygenase 1
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Isoenzymes / analysis
  • Isoenzymes / genetics*
  • Male
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Middle Aged
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase / analysis
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase / genetics*
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / analysis
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / genetics*
  • Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / enzymology*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / enzymology*
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis


  • Isoenzymes
  • Membrane Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Cyclooxygenase 1
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • PTGS1 protein, human
  • PTGS2 protein, human
  • Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases