16 Y-specific STR loci have been analysed in 711 males from 12 populations in Pakistan. Individual loci showed between 4 and 10 alleles, and diversities ranged from 0.07 to 0.77. A total of 527 different haplotypes were found and the haplotype diversity ranged from 0.92 to 0.99 for the different populations. 446 haplotypes occurred in single individuals, and only 19 haplotypes were present in more than three males, but two striking examples of haplotype sharing were found, one involving 13 individuals, and the other 17. The 13 individuals were all Parsis, and 16 of the 17 were Brahuis, providing evidence for population substructuring.