Prostate cancer, while initially dependent on androgens for proliferation, progresses to an androgen-independent state. Evidence has been accumulating that interleukin-6 (IL-6) may contribute to prostate cancer progression. Serum levels of IL-6 correlate with prostate tumor burden and patient morbidity. The prostate tissue itself appears to be a source of IL-6 and its receptor. Furthermore, experimental data suggest that IL-6 is an autocrine and paracrine growth factor for androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines. For example, inhibition of IL-6, with anti-IL-6 antibody, sensitizes androgen-independent prostate cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents in vitro. Finally, IL-6 activates a variety of signal transduction cascades, some which stimulate androgen receptor activity, in prostate cancer cells. These data suggest that targeting IL-6 may have multiple benefits in prostate cancer patients.