FPR and FPRL1 belong to the seven-transmembrane, G protein-coupled chemoattractant receptor superfamily. Because of their capacity to interact with bacterial chemotactic formylated peptides, these receptors are thought to play a role in host defense against microbial infection. Recently, a variety of novel agonists have been identified for these receptors, including several host-derived endogenous molecules that are involved in proinflammatory responses. Most notably is the use of FPRL1 by at least three amyloidogenic protein and peptide ligands, the serum amyloid A (SAA), the 42 amino acid form of beta amyloid (Abeta(42)), and the prion peptide PrP106-126, to chemoattract and activate human phagocytic leukocytes. These new findings have greatly expanded the functional scope of the formyl peptide receptors and call for more in-depth investigation of the role of these receptors in pathophysiological conditions.