The effect of garlic and onion on alimentary hyperlipemia, induced by feeding 100 g butter, has been studied in 10 healthy subjects. The freshly extracted juice of 50 g of garlic or onion, as well as an equivalent amount of their ether-extracted essential oils, was administered randomly on four different days during a one-week period. Garlic and onion have a significant protective action against fat-induced increases in serum cholesterol and plasma fibrinogen and decreases in coagulation time and fibrinolytic activity. The essential oil fraction, which contains all the taste and odour, exactly duplicated the beneficial effects of whole garlic and onion. It is, therefore, concluded that the active principle of garlic and onion is the essential oil, which chemically is a combination of sulphur-containing compounds, mainly allyl propyl disulphide and diallyl disulphide.