Postoperative pain management using intravenous patient-controlled analgesia for pediatric patients

J Craniofac Surg. 2001 Mar;12(2):129-33. doi: 10.1097/00001665-200103000-00007.


Pain control is an important consideration after any surgical procedures. Especially in children, more attention and care are needed during the period of postoperative pain control, which must be both sufficiently safe and effective. In this respect, intravenous patient-controlled analgesia provides improved titration of analgesic drugs, thereby maintaining optimal analgesic status with few side effects. Thirty pediatric patients were randomly divided into two groups: the intravenous patient-controlled analgesia group (with nalbuphine HCl and ketorolac tromethamine) and the conventional pethidine HCl intramuscular group. The degree of analgesia was assessed every 4 hours until the second postoperative day. The intravenous patient-controlled analgesia group had significantly lower pain scores and took less time until they were able to walk to the bathroom, but as many side effects as the control group. We concluded that intravenous patient-controlled analgesia is safe and effective for pediatric patients who have moderate to severe pain after operations such as rib cartilage graft, iliac bone graft, and large flap surgeries.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Analgesia, Patient-Controlled*
  • Analgesics, Opioid / administration & dosage
  • Analgesics, Opioid / adverse effects
  • Analgesics, Opioid / therapeutic use
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / adverse effects
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use
  • Bone Transplantation
  • Cartilage / transplantation
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Headache / chemically induced
  • Humans
  • Injections, Intramuscular
  • Injections, Intravenous
  • Ketorolac Tromethamine / administration & dosage
  • Ketorolac Tromethamine / adverse effects
  • Ketorolac Tromethamine / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Meperidine / administration & dosage
  • Meperidine / adverse effects
  • Meperidine / therapeutic use
  • Nalbuphine / administration & dosage
  • Nalbuphine / adverse effects
  • Nalbuphine / therapeutic use
  • Pain Measurement
  • Pain, Postoperative / prevention & control*
  • Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting / chemically induced
  • Safety
  • Statistics, Nonparametric
  • Surgical Flaps
  • Time Factors
  • Walking / physiology


  • Analgesics, Opioid
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Ketorolac Tromethamine
  • Meperidine
  • Nalbuphine