Between 1993 and 1998, 16 patients with perineal ectopic testes (PET) (1%) were diagnosed among the 1,576 patients operated upon for undescended testes (UDT) in two pediatric surgical centers. The mean age was 23 +/- 22.5 months. The clinical presentation was an empty scrotum with an ipsilateral palpable perineal mass in 16 patients and an inguinal hernia in 5. In all except 1 patient whose atrophic testis was removed, orchiopexy into the dartos pouch was easily performed through a standard inguinal skin-crease incision. The length of the testicular vessels and vas deferens was adequate and retroperitoneal dissection was not required. Although the complications of UDT are the same as for PET, the timing of surgery should be different. It is generally accepted that children must not be below 6 months of age for surgical correction of UDT, but there is no need to delay surgery in PET, which can easily be diagnosed by physical examination in the neonatal period. Surgery is indicated even if there is no hernia present.