This study explores the factors associated with neonatal mortality and maternal health care in Nepal. The subjects were 4375 births reported in the 1996 Nepal Family Health Survey. Maternal and child health care was found to have a significant association with neonatal mortality, although preceding birth interval and sex of child had stronger effects. Four aspects of maternal care were found to be highly associated with region, household ownership of assets, mother's education and father's education. This indicates that accessibility, affordability and availability of maternal health care are important factors to consider in future research on neonatal mortality.