Objective: To describe the changing incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in people with HIV in Australia during the time period of introduction of potent combination anti-retroviral therapy.
Design: A national, population-based linkage study of cancer and HIV registration data.
Methods: We calculated person-year rates of KS and NHL in people after reporting of HIV diagnosis. Trends in cancer incidence rates were examined, based on four time periods defined by the availability of specific anti-retroviral therapies.
Results: Linkage identified 206 cases of KS and 235 cases of NHL in 8108 people reported with HIV infection. There was an increasing trend in NHL incidence rates over the four time periods (P for trend, 0.012), but incidence for the period since the availability of the new therapies was significantly lower than that for the period immediately prior (incidence rate ratio 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.92). Incidence of KS had been decreasing prior to the new therapies and declined further since their widespread use (P for trend, 0.045).
Conclusions: Population-based incidence rates of AIDS related KS and NHL have decreased since the widespread use of potent anti-retroviral therapies in Australia. NHL incidence decreased less than KS, and NHL is now the most common AIDS-associated cancer in Australia.