A controlled study was carried out in mid-Sweden with the aim of comparing oral self-care and self-perceived oral health in 102 randomly sampled type 2 diabetic patients with that of 102 age-and-gender-matched non-diabetic controls. Oral health variables were also related to glycemic control (HbA1c), duration, anti-diabetic treatment, and late complications. Questionnaires were used to collect data on oral self-care and self-perceived oral health. Diabetes-related variables were extracted from medical records. Eighty-five percent of the diabetic subjects had never received information about the relation between diabetes and oral health, and 83% were unaware of the link. Forty-eight percent believed that the dentist/ dental hygienist did not know of their having diabetes. Most individuals, but fewer in the diabetic group, were regular visitors to dental care and the majority felt unaffected when confronted with dental services. More than 90% in both groups brushed their teeth daily and more than half of those with natural teeth did proximal cleaning. Subjects in the diabetic group as well as in the control group were content with their teeth and mouth (83% vs 85%. Those with solely natural teeth and those with complete removable dentures expressed most satisfaction. Sensation of dry mouth was common among diabetic patients (54%) and subjects with hypertension exhibited dry mouth to a greater extent (65%) than those who were normotensive. Our principal conclusion is that efforts should be made to give information about diabetes as a risk factor for oral health from dental services to diabetic patients and diabetes staff.