This study evaluated the early and late results of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients on long-term maintenance hemodialysis (chronic HD) at Teikyo University Ichihara Hospital between January 1996 and June 2000. Thirty-six patients on chronic HD underwent CABG. There were 26 males (72%) and 10 females (28%) ranging from 41 to 81 years (mean +/- SD, 61.8 +/- 9.2 years) of age. Twenty-one patients (58%) had unstable angina, 14 (39%) stable angina, and 1 acute myocardial infarction. Eleven patients (31%) had urgent or emergency CABG. The average graft number was 2.5 +/- 0.8 (arterial graft 1.3 +/- 0.7/patient). Six patients had concomitant cardiac operations. Three patients underwent re- or a second re-CABG. Five patients underwent off-pump CABG. Principally, HD was performed during cardiopulmonary bypass and was followed by continuous hemodiafiltration in the early postoperative period. The early mortality was 11%; 25% in emergency and urgent CABG and 4% in elective CABG. In the follow-up period between 1 and 53 months (mean +/- SD 21.9 +/- 15.1 months), 4 patients died, and 9 patients developed recurrence of angina pectoris (6, occlusion of saphenous vein graft and 3, native coronary progression). Six patients had coronary intervention. The postoperative angiogram showed that all arterial grafts were patent, but the patency of the vein grafts was only 61.5%. The early results of CABG in patients on chronic HD was satisfactory. The late recurrence of angina pectoris mostly was caused by occlusion of the saphenous vein graft. In conclusion, the aggressive use of arterial grafts is crucial in CABG for patients on chronic HD.