An in vivo model was developed to investigate the usability of a frontal sinus and a calvarial bone defect obliteration with bioactive glass S53P4 (BG) and hydroxyapatite (HA) granules. Roofs of 21 Elco rabbit frontal sinuses were drilled open from 4 separate holes using a standard method, and the sinuses, located in pairs, in frontal bone were filled with BG on one side and with HA on the other side. Two parallel posterior defects were covered with a pedicled periosteum flap, and 2 anterior defects with a free flap. The stability of materials, new bone, and connective tissue formation were observed with histomorphometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA), and X-ray pictures at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The results showed more rapid resorption of filling material (p = 0.019) and new bone formation (p = 0.0001) in the defects filled with BG than in the corresponding HA-filled defects studied by histomorphometry throughout the study. New bone formation and resorption of materials were faster in defects covered by a pedicled flap than by a free periosteum flap. The results were supported by SEM histomorphometric and radiologic analysis. Both bioactive materials studied were well tolerated in frontal sinuses and in calvarial bone defects. The experimental model showed the influence of early periosteum vascularization on accurate frontal sinus filling and the healing process in rabbit frontal sinuses.
Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.