Worldwide prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, 1997-1999

Clin Infect Dis. 2001 May 15;32 Suppl 2:S81-93. doi: 10.1086/320181.


The in vitro activities of numerous antimicrobials against clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis from patients with bloodstream and respiratory tract infections in the United States, Canada, Europe, Latin America, and the Asia-Pacific region were studied in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. Penicillin resistance (minimum inhibitory concentration, > or =2 microg/mL) was noted in all 5 geographic regions, and a high and increasing rate of macrolide resistance among S. pneumoniae isolates was observed. Elevated rates of resistance to clindamycin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline were seen. beta-Lactamase-mediated resistance in H. influenzae to amoxicillin and variable trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance by region were documented. Resistance to several drugs continues to emerge among pneumococci worldwide, but more stable resistance patterns have been noted for H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis. Continued surveillance of this pathogen group appears to be prudent.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Chloramphenicol / therapeutic use
  • Clindamycin / therapeutic use
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial*
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple
  • Haemophilus influenzae / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Macrolides
  • Moraxella catarrhalis / drug effects*
  • Penicillin Resistance
  • Prevalence
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / drug therapy
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / microbiology
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae / drug effects*
  • Tetracycline / therapeutic use
  • Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination / therapeutic use
  • beta-Lactamases / metabolism


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Macrolides
  • Clindamycin
  • Chloramphenicol
  • Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination
  • beta-Lactamases
  • Tetracycline