There are many materials available for the reconstruction of calvarial defects. Even though their biomaterial properties are well known, the biomechanical properties as part of the calvarium have not been investigated. In this article, calvarial implants are reviewed with their historic development into modern cranioplasty. Materials for trephined skulls are classified by their category. Individual parameters to describe their mechanical properties are collected and revealed in detail. The laboratory testing methodology for cranioplasty material is introduced to understand each parameter. At last, we discuss an engineering technique to look into the implant behavior. Since there is no standard goal for the biomechanical and biomaterial point of view for cranioplasty, this article suggests the finite element method for evaluation of the implant behavior and the degree of damage upon the impact injury.