Chlorella vulgaris extract (CVE) was examined for its effects on the Ehrlich ascites tumor-induced suppression in the numbers of bone marrow and spleen granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells (CFU-GM) in mice. No effects on bone marrow and spleen CFU-GM, as compared to controls, were observed in normal mice given 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg CVE orally for 5 days. In tumor-bearing mice, myelosuppression concomitant with increased number of spleen CFU-GM were observed. The number of CFU-GM in the bone marrow was restored to control levels after the administration of CVE (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) to tumor-bearing mice, and a slight reduction in spleen colony formation was observed in these animals. In addition, CVE significantly prolonged the survival of mice inoculated with the Ehrlich ascites tumor. These results suggest a protective antitumor effect of CVE which might be attributable, at least in part, to the stimulation of the production and, possibly, maturation of granulocytes and macrophages.