We ascertained frequencies of autoantibodies to a suite of islet cell antigens including ICA512/IA2 and SOX13 in Asian Indians with Type 1 diabetes and in other forms of diabetes. Autoantibodies to ICA512/IA2 and SOX13 were tested by radioimmunoprecipitation assay, and results were amalgamated with previous data on antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and to islet cell cytoplasmic antigens (ICA). The frequency of anti-SOX13 was higher in Asian Indians than in Europids. Overall, the combined frequency for all autoantibodies to diabetes-associated antigens in Type 1 diabetes in Indians approached the frequency reported for Europids. There was an unexpectedly high frequency of autoantibody reactions to any one of the autoantigens tested (24%) in fibrocalculous pancreatic diabetes, however, individual autoantibody frequencies were relatively low. Our data indicate that, whatever the population studied, testing for multiple autoantigenic reactivities is more informative than more limited testing, and that there may be regional (presumably ethnically based) differences in levels of particular autoantibodies in cases of Type 1 diabetes.