The focus of this paper is to evaluate the relationship between postural sway assessed by a gravicorder and peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes. Posturography (GRAVICHART), electrophysiological tests, and power spectrum analysis of heart rate fluctuations were performed in the following age-matched subjects: 123 type 2 diabetic patients without peripheral neuropathy, 32 type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy, and 55 healthy control subjects. All diabetic patients with a history of clinical neurological dysfunction were excluded from the study. Significant correlations were found between parameters of GRAVICHART and some parameters of the electrophysiological tests as well as the parameters of heart rate variability. The envelope area and the length per time were larger in type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy than in patients without peripheral neuropathy and the control subjects. There were no significant differences in the GRAVICHART parameters between diabetic patients without neuropathy and the healthy control subjects. Type 2 diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy exhibited an inability to maintain an upright posture. The GRAVICHART can indicate the early stage of postural balance impairment.