The secondary amine/nitric oxide complex ion R(2)N[N(O)NO](-) as nucleophile and leaving group in S9N)Ar reactions

J Org Chem. 2001 May 4;66(9):3090-8. doi: 10.1021/jo0016529.


Ions of structure R(2)N[N(O)NO](-) and their alkylation products have seen increasing use as nitric oxide (NO)-generating agents for biomedical research applications. Here we show that such diazeniumdiolate anions can readily displace halide from a variety of electrophilic aza- or nitroaromatic substrates to form O(2)-arylated derivatives of structure R(2)N-N(O)=N-OAr. The site of arylation and the cis arrangement of the oxygens were confirmed by X-ray crystallography. Displacement by various nucleophiles showed R(2)N[N(O)NO](-) to be a reasonably good leaving group, with rate constants for displacement by hydroxide, methoxide, and isopropylamine that were between those of chloride and fluoride in the S(N)Ar reactions we surveyed. The Meisenheimer intermediate could be spectrally observed. These O(2)-aryl diazeniumdiolates proved capable of reacting with the nucleophilic sulfur of the HIV-1 p7 nucleocapsid protein's zinc finger assembly to eject the zinc, disrupting a structural motif critical to viral replication and suggesting possible utility in the drug discovery realm.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amines / chemistry*
  • Anions / chemical synthesis*
  • Anti-HIV Agents / chemical synthesis*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Chemistry, Physical
  • Crystallography, X-Ray
  • Imides / chemical synthesis*
  • Kinetics
  • Nitric Oxide / chemistry*
  • Spectrometry, Fluorescence
  • T-Lymphocytes / drug effects
  • T-Lymphocytes / virology
  • Zinc Fingers


  • Amines
  • Anions
  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Imides
  • Nitric Oxide