Expression of interleukin-8 correlates with angiogenesis, tumorigenicity, and metastasis of human prostate cancer cells implanted orthotopically in nude mice

Neoplasia. Jan-Feb 2001;3(1):33-42. doi: 10.1038/sj.neo.7900124.


We determined whether the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) by human prostate cancer cells correlates with induction of angiogenesis, tumorigenicity, and production of metastasis. Low and high IL-8-producing clones were isolated from the heterogeneous PC-3 human prostate cancer cell line. The secretion of IL-8 protein correlated with transcriptional activity and levels of IL-8 mRNA. All PC-3 cells expressed both IL-8 receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2. The low and high IL-8-producing clones were injected into the prostate of nude mice. Titration studies indicated that PC-3 cells expressing high levels of IL-8 were highly tumorigenic, producing rapidly growing, highly vascularized prostate tumors with and a 100% incidence of lymph node metastasis. Low IL-8-expressing PC-3 cells were less tumorigenic, producing slower growing and less vascularized primary tumors and a significantly lower incidence of metastasis. In situ hybridization (ISH) analysis of the tumors for expression of genes that regulate angiogenesis and metastasis showed that the expression level of IL-8, matrix metalloproteinases, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and E-cadherin corresponded with microvascular density and biological behavior of the prostate cancers in nude mice. Collectively, the data show that the expression level of IL-8 in human prostate cancer cells is associated with angiogenesis, tumorigenicity, and metastasis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blotting, Northern
  • Cadherins / metabolism
  • DNA Primers / chemistry
  • Endothelial Growth Factors / metabolism
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / metabolism
  • Humans
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Interleukin-8 / metabolism*
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Lymphokines / metabolism
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Mice, Nude
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Neoplasm Transplantation
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism*
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / blood supply*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics*
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors


  • Cadherins
  • DNA Primers
  • Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Interleukin-8
  • Lymphokines
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 2
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2