We determined whether the expression of interleukin-8 (IL-8) by human prostate cancer cells correlates with induction of angiogenesis, tumorigenicity, and production of metastasis. Low and high IL-8-producing clones were isolated from the heterogeneous PC-3 human prostate cancer cell line. The secretion of IL-8 protein correlated with transcriptional activity and levels of IL-8 mRNA. All PC-3 cells expressed both IL-8 receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2. The low and high IL-8-producing clones were injected into the prostate of nude mice. Titration studies indicated that PC-3 cells expressing high levels of IL-8 were highly tumorigenic, producing rapidly growing, highly vascularized prostate tumors with and a 100% incidence of lymph node metastasis. Low IL-8-expressing PC-3 cells were less tumorigenic, producing slower growing and less vascularized primary tumors and a significantly lower incidence of metastasis. In situ hybridization (ISH) analysis of the tumors for expression of genes that regulate angiogenesis and metastasis showed that the expression level of IL-8, matrix metalloproteinases, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and E-cadherin corresponded with microvascular density and biological behavior of the prostate cancers in nude mice. Collectively, the data show that the expression level of IL-8 in human prostate cancer cells is associated with angiogenesis, tumorigenicity, and metastasis.