Development of high-throughput 'biochip' technologies has dramatically enhanced our ability to study biology and explore the molecular basis of disease. Biochips enable massively parallel molecular analyses to be carried out in a miniaturized format with a very high throughput. This review will highlight applications of the various biochip technologies in cancer research, including analysis of 1) disease predisposition by using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays, 2) global gene expression patterns by cDNA microarrays, 3) concentrations, functional activities or interactions of proteins with proteomic biochips, and 4) cell types or tissues as well as clinical endpoints associated with molecular targets by using tissue microarrays. One can predict that individual cancer risks can, in the future, be estimated accurately by a microarray profile of multiple SNPs in critical genes. Diagnostics of cancer will be facilitated by biochip readout of activity levels of thousands of genes and proteins. Biochip diagnostics coupled with informatics solutions will form the basis of individualized treatment decisions for cancer patients.