Extraction of the aortic and pulmonary components of the second heart sound using a nonlinear transient chirp signal model

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2001 Mar;48(3):277-83. doi: 10.1109/10.914790.


The objective of this paper is to adapt and validate a nonlinear transient chirp signal modeling approach for the analysis and synthesis of overlapping aortic (A2) and pulmonary (P2) components of the second heart sound (S2). The approach is based on the time-frequency representation of multicomponent signals for estimating and reconstructing the instantaneous phase and amplitude functions of each component. To evaluate the accuracy of the approach, a simulated S2 with A2 and P2 components having different overlapping intervals (5-30 ms) was synthesized. The simulation results show that the technique is very effective for extracting the two components, even in the presence of noise (-15 dB). The normalized root-mean-squared error between the original A2 and P2 components and their reconstructed versions varied between 1% and 6%, proportionally to the duration of the overlapping interval, and it increased by less than 2% in the presence of noise. The validated technique was then applied to S2 components recorded in pigs under normal or high pulmonary artery pressures. The results show that this approach can successfully isolate and extract overlapping A2 and P2 components from successive S2 recordings obtained from different heartbeats of the same animal as well from different animals.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Aorta / physiology*
  • Blood Pressure
  • Heart Sounds / physiology*
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / diagnosis
  • Hypertension, Pulmonary / physiopathology
  • Models, Cardiovascular*
  • Nonlinear Dynamics*
  • Phonocardiography*
  • Pulmonary Artery / physiology*
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Swine