Nutritional quality of organic versus conventional fruits, vegetables, and grains

J Altern Complement Med. 2001 Apr;7(2):161-73. doi: 10.1089/107555301750164244.


Objectives: To survey existing literature comparing nutrient content of organic and conventional crops using statistical methods to identify significant differences and trends in the data.

Design: Published comparative measurements of organic and conventional nutrient content were entered into a database for calculation. For each organic-to-conventional comparison, a percent difference was calculated: (organic - conventional)/conventional x 100. For nutrients where there was adequate data, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to identify significant differences in nutrient content as represented by the percent difference. Mean percent difference values were also calculated for each significant nutrient by study and by vegetable for the most frequently studied vegetables. The nutrient content of the daily vegetable intake was calculated for both an organic and conventional diet.

Results: Organic crops contained significantly more vitamin C, iron, magnesium, and phosphorus and significantly less nitrates than conventional crops. There were nonsignificant trends showing less protein but of a better quality and a higher content of nutritionally significant minerals with lower amounts of some heavy metals in organic crops compared to conventional ones.

Conclusions: There appear to be genuine differences in the nutrient content of organic and conventional crops.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Ascorbic Acid / analysis
  • Edible Grain*
  • Food, Organic / analysis*
  • Fruit*
  • Humans
  • Iron / analysis
  • Magnesium / analysis
  • Micronutrients / analysis*
  • Phosphorus / analysis
  • Vegetables*


  • Micronutrients
  • Phosphorus
  • Iron
  • Magnesium
  • Ascorbic Acid