Creating vortex rings and three-dimensional skyrmions in Bose-Eeinstein condensates

Phys Rev Lett. 2001 Apr 30;86(18):3934-7. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.3934.

Abstract

We propose a method of generating a vortex ring in a Bose-Einstein condensate by means of electromagnetically induced atomic transitions. Some remnant population of atoms in a second internal state remains within the toroidal trap formed by the mean-field repulsion of the vortex ring. This population can be removed, or it can be made to flow around the torus (i.e., within the vortex ring). If this flow has a unit topological winding number, the entire structure formed by the two condensates is an example of a three-dimensional Skyrmion texture.