The role of pretransplant voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) in adults has been questioned owing to the low prevalence of abnormal findings. As there are no studies evaluating the relevance of VCUG in children and because vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) occurs with higher prevalence in children, we performed a retrospective cohort study to identify any predictors for abnormal VCUG. We reviewed 271 consecutive renal transplants performed between 1980 and 1997. By logistic regression, the etiology of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and age at transplantation (Tx) were strong predictors of abnormal pretransplant VCUG findings in children. On multi-variate analysis, children with urologic etiologies of renal disease had an odds ratio (OR) of 16.5 (p < 0.0001) for abnormal VCUG as compared to children with non-urologic or acquired causes of ESRD. Similarly, children transplanted when younger than 8 yr of age had an OR of 3.0 (p = 0.0043) for having an abnormal VCUG when compared with older children. Finally, our analysis suggests that children with abnormal pretransplant VCUG findings, whether or not pretransplant surgical correction was performed, were over three-fold more likely to require post-transplant urologic surgery when compared to children with normal pretransplant VCUG. We conclude that urologic causes of ESRD and age under 8 yr are strong independent predictors of abnormal pretransplant VCUG findings, and that these findings are of clinical relevance both in deciding whether to pursue pretransplant VCUG and in the post-transplant course of the patient.