The Crystal Structure of Phosphinothricin in the Active Site of Glutamine Synthetase Illuminates the Mechanism of Enzymatic Inhibition

Biochemistry. 2001 Feb 20;40(7):1903-12. doi: 10.1021/bi002438h.


Phosphinothricin is a potent inhibitor of the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS). The resolution of the native structure of GS from Salmonella typhimurium has been extended to 2.5 A resolution, and the improved model is used to determine the structure of phosphinothricin complexed to GS by difference Fourier methods. The structure suggests a noncovalent, dead-end mechanism of inhibition. Phosphinothricin occupies the glutamate substrate pocket and stabilizes the Glu327 flap in a position which blocks the glutamate entrance to the active site, trapping the inhibitor on the enzyme. One oxygen of the phosphinyl group of phosphinothricin appears to be protonated, because of its proximity to the carboxylate group of Glu327. The other phosphinyl oxygen protrudes into the negatively charged binding pocket for the substrate ammonium, disrupting that pocket. The distribution of charges in the glutamate binding pocket is complementary to those of phosphinothricin. The presence of a second ammonium binding site within the active site is confirmed by its analogue thallous ion, marking the ammonium site and its protein ligands. The inhibition of GS by methionine sulfoximine can be explained by the same mechanism. These models of inhibited GS further illuminate its catalytic mechanism.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aminobutyrates / chemistry*
  • Aminobutyrates / metabolism*
  • Asparagine / metabolism
  • Aspartic Acid / metabolism
  • Binding Sites
  • Catalysis
  • Computer Simulation
  • Crystallography, X-Ray / methods
  • Electrons
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / chemistry*
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / metabolism*
  • Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase / chemistry*
  • Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase / metabolism
  • Glutamic Acid / metabolism
  • Models, Molecular
  • Salmonella typhimurium / enzymology
  • Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared
  • Static Electricity
  • Substrate Specificity
  • Thallium / metabolism
  • Tyrosine / metabolism


  • Aminobutyrates
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Aspartic Acid
  • Glutamic Acid
  • Tyrosine
  • phosphinothricin
  • Asparagine
  • Thallium
  • Glutamate-Ammonia Ligase

Associated data

  • PDB/1F52
  • PDB/1FPY
  • PDB/F1H