Resistant starch decreases the concentration of secondary bile acids in the feces and the proliferation rate of colonic mucosal cells in healthy volunteers. This may reduce the risk of colon cancer. We investigated 23 patients with recently removed colonic adenoma(s) in a controlled parallel trial. They consumed 45 g of maltodextrin per day as placebo for four weeks and were randomly assigned to either 45 g of native amylomaize starch, containing 28 g of resistant starch type II or 45 g of maltodextrin for another four weeks. No effect on colorectal cell proliferation, fecal wet and dry weights, pH, and short-chain fatty acid excretion was seen. The bile acid concentration in fecal water decreased by 15% (P = 0.048) and the percentage secondary bile acids decreased by 14% (P = 0.002) on resistant starch relative to placebo. Whether this has a substantial role in colon cancer prevention in these patients remains to be established.