The mtDNA haplogroups of 185 individuals from Native American tribes in Northeast North America were determined. A subset of these individuals was analyzed by sequencing hypervariable segments I and II of the control region. The haplogroup frequency distributions of populations in the Northeast exhibit regional continuity that predates European contact. A large amount of gene flow has occurred between Siouan-and Algonquian-speaking groups, probably due to an Algonquian intrusion into the Northeast. The data also support both the Macro-Siouan hypothesis and a relatively recent intrusion of Northern Iroquoians into the Northeast. These conclusions are consistent with archaeological and linguistic evidence.