A novel scenario for the evolution of haem-copper oxygen reductases

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 Jun 1;1505(2-3):185-208. doi: 10.1016/s0005-2728(01)00169-4.


The increasing sequence information on oxygen reductases of the haem-copper superfamily, together with the available three-dimensional structures, allows a clear identification of their common, functionally important features. Taking into consideration both the overall amino acid sequences of the core subunits and key residues involved in proton transfer, a novel hypothesis for the molecular evolution of these enzymes is proposed. Three main families of oxygen reductases are identified on the basis of common features of the core subunits, constituting three lines of evolution: (i) type A (mitochondrial-like oxidases), (ii) type B (ba3-like oxidases) and (iii) type C (cbb3-type oxidases). The first group can be further divided into two subfamilies, according to the helix VI residues at the hydrophobic end of one of the proton pathways (the so-called D-channel): (i) type A1, comprising the enzymes with a glutamate residue in the motif -XGHPEV-, and (ii) type A2, enzymes having instead a tyrosine and a serine in the alternative motif -YSHPXV-. This second subfamily of oxidases is shown to be ancestor to the one containing the glutamate residue, which in the Bacteria domain is only present in oxidases from Gram-positive or purple bacteria. It is further proposed that the Archaea domain acquired terminal oxidases by gene transfer from the Gram-positive bacteria, implying that these enzymes were not present in the last common ancestor before the divergence between Archaea and Bacteria. In fact, most oxidases from archaea have a higher amino acid sequence identity and similarity with those from bacteria, mainly from the Gram-positive group, than with oxidases from other archaea. Finally, a possible relation between the dihaemic subunit (FixP) of the cbb3 oxidases and subunit II of caa3 oxidases is discussed. As the families of haem-copper oxidases can also be identified by their subunit II, a parallel evolution of subunits I and II is suggested.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Bacteria / enzymology
  • Bacteria / genetics*
  • Copper / chemistry
  • Cytochrome b Group / genetics
  • Cytochromes / genetics
  • Electron Transport Complex IV / genetics
  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing) / chemistry
  • Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing) / genetics
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Oxidoreductases / chemistry
  • Oxidoreductases / classification
  • Oxidoreductases / genetics*
  • Phylogeny
  • Proton Pumps / chemistry
  • Proton Pumps / classification
  • Proton Pumps / genetics*
  • Protons
  • Sequence Alignment


  • Cytochrome b Group
  • Cytochromes
  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • Proton Pumps
  • Protons
  • cytochrome b(oa)3
  • cytochrome bo3, E coli
  • Copper
  • Oxidoreductases
  • Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing)
  • cbb3 oxidase
  • Electron Transport Complex IV