Trichothiodystrophy (TTD) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by a hair dysplasia and associated with numerous symptoms affecting mainly organs derived from the neuroectoderm. About half of TTD patients exhibit photosensitivity because their nucleotide-excision repair pathway (NER) does not remove UV-induced DNA lesions efficiently. However, they do not present the skin cancer susceptibility expected from such an NER disorder. Their deficiencies result from phenotype-specific mutations in either XPB or XPD. These genes encode the helicase subunits of TFIIH, a DNA repair factor that is also required for transcription of class II genes. Thus, time- and tissue-specific impairments of transcription might explain the developmental and neurological symptoms of TTD. In a third group of photosensitive patients, TTD-A, no mutation has been identified, although TFIIH amount is reduced.