Objectives: The review on our own data on the effect of the pineal peptide preparation Epithalamin on free radical processes in rodents and humans is presented in this paper.
Results: The activity of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) was found decreased in the brain of aged rats (30 months old) by 46.8% as compared to young animals. Concentration of Schiff's bases in the brain also went down with age (by 13.6%), while the level of dien conjugates (DC) and protein peroxidation (PPO) remained unchanged. General antioxidation activity (AOA) in the brain also remained stable with age. The liver of aged rats showed significant increase of Schiff's bases (by 27.1%) and PPO products (by 109.2%) and considerable decrease of SOD activity. The level of DC and general AOA in the liver remained unchanged with age. Considerable elevation of protein and lipid peroxidation products contents was registered in the blood serum of aged rats. At the same time, general AOA and SOD activity remarkably decreased. The results obtained evidence from both significant age-related alterations in the activity of free radical processes in animal organism and organic peculiarities of their dynamics. Application of peptide drug epithalamin suppressed significantly the intensity of peroxide chemoluminescence in the blood serum (2.8-fold) and lipid peroxide oxidation (LPO) expressed in the considerably decreased DC contents (4,1-fold). The contents of Schiff's bases showed only a tendency towards decrease (by 14.4%, p > 0.05) and PPO level remained unchanged. Epithalamin administration was followed by considerable (by 36.6%, p < 0.01) increase of general AOA and increased SOD activity (by 19.7%) in males. Epithalamin decreased significantly the contents of conjugated hydroperoxides and ketodienes in tissues of D.melanogaster females, increased catalase activity in drosophila males and females, and increased SOD activity in males of D.melanogaster by 41%. Humans reveal significant age-related decrease of antioxidation defence indices.
Conclusion: Epithalamin administration to patients with age-related pathology eliminates imbalance in prooxidation and antioxidation systems.