The frequency of coronary risk factors was documented in 4,829 school children in Muscatine, Iowa, over a 14-month period of time. Serum cholesterol levels were similar for children at all ages; the mean serum cholesterol level was 182 mg/dl (SD lus or minus 29). Twenty four percent had levels larger than or equal to 200 mg/dl, 9% were larger than or equal to 220 mg/dl, 3 % were larger than or equal to 240 mg/dl, and 1% were larger than or equal to 260 mg/dl. Casual levels of serum triglyceride increased with age: the mean level was 71 mg/dl (SD plus or minus 36) at age 6 years and 108 mg/dl (SD plus or minus 45) at age 18 years. Only 15% of the children had serum triglyceride levels of 140 mg/dl or more. Blood pressure increased strikingly with age. No child between 6 and 9 years of age had blood pressures larger than or equal to 140 mm Hg systolic or larger than or equal to 90 mm Hg diastolic. In the age group 14 to 18 years, 8.9% had systolic blood pressures larger than or equal to 140 mm Hg, 12.2% had diastolic blood pressures larger than or equal to 90 mm Hg, and in 4.4% both pressures were at or above these levels. Obesity also increased through the school years. At ages 6 to 9 years, 20% had weights relative to those of the group as a whole of larger than or equal to 110%, and 5% were larger than or equal to 130%; in the 14 to 18 years age group, 25% had relative weights of larger than or equal to 110%, and 8% were larger than or equal to 130%. These data indicate that a considerable number of school-age children have risk factors which in adults are predictive of coronary heart disease.