Purpose: To examine the following questions with regard to the initiation of a new intensive management program for adolescents with Type 1 diabetes mellitus: (a) What clinical and psychosocial factors are associated with achievement of metabolic control treatment goals after 1 year? and (b) What baseline clinical and psychosocial factors are associated with improvement in the quality of life after 12 months?
Methods: Eighty-one subjects (of 83 who began; aged 14.3 +/- 2.0 years at entry; 48 females, 33 males; 95% white; diabetes duration 8.9 +/- 3.9 years) with Type 1 diabetes completed 12 months of follow-up in a study of intensified treatment of diabetes. Assessments at baseline and at 12 months used the Diabetes Quality of Life for Youth scale, the Self-efficacy for Diabetes Scale, the Children's Depression Inventory, the Issues in Coping with Diabetes Scale, and the Diabetes Family Behavior Scale. Data were analyzed using multiple and logistic regression.
Results: From a baseline of >9%, HbA1c levels decreased to a mean of 7.8 +/- 0.7%, with 30% of the subjects achieving our treatment goal of <or=7.2%. Logistic regression demonstrated that achievement of goal levels of HbA1c were associated with better metabolic control at study entry (p = .05), participation in coping skills training (p = .003), and more parental participation in guidance and control (p = .05). Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that participation in coping skills training with lower impact of diabetes on quality of life at baseline and less depression at baseline contributed significantly to the variance (0.57) in quality of life at 12 months.
Conclusions: Providers need to pay particular attention to adolescents with poorer metabolic control and impact of diabetes on quality of life when they intensify their treatment because they are less likely to reach treatment goals. Furthermore, behavioral interventions such as coping skills training may help teens achieve their goals.