Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) have been used to detect Chlamydia (C.) pneumoniae in vascular tissues. Discrepancies between the results of these two methods have frequently been reported. However, the correlation between PCR and IHC has not been analyzed yet. This study assesses the correlation between the detection of C. pneumoniae by PCR and IHC in 45 atherosclerotic and 50 non-atherosclerotic tissue specimens. Also, the presence of Mycoplasma (M.) pneumoniae in these 95 specimens was investigated. Correlation was found between the detection of C. pneumoniae by PCR and IHC in the atherosclerotic tissues. Both tests were positive in 10 specimens and negative in 17 specimens (p = 0.003). There was no significant correlation between PCR and IHC in non-atherosclerotic specimens (p = ns). M. pneumoniae was detected, by PCR, in one atherosclerotic specimen.The results show correlation between PCR and IHC in the detection of C. pneumoniae in atherosclerotic tissues, emphasize the association between C. pneumoniae and atherosclerosis, and support the specificity of the association between C. pneumoniae and atherosclerosis.