The acquisition and allocation of nitrogenous compounds are essential processes in plant growth and development. The huge economic and environmental costs resulting from the application of nitrogen fertilizers make this topic very important. A diverse array of transporters varying in their expression pattern and also in their affinity, specificity, and capacity for nitrogenous compounds has been identified. Now the future challenge is to define their individual contribution to nitrogen nutrition and signalling processes. Here we have reviewed recent advances in the identification and molecular characterization of these transporters, concentrating on mechanisms existing at the plasma membrane. The review focuses on nitrate, ammonium, and amino acid transporter familes, but we also briefly describe what is known at the molecular level about peptide transporters and a recently identified family implicated in the transport of purines and their derivatives.