In-vitro studies were conducted to assess the impact of CYP2C9 genotype on the metabolism (methyl hydroxylation) and pharmacokinetics of celecoxib, a novel cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor and CYP2C9 substrate. When compared to cDNA-expressed wild-type CYP2C9 (CYP2C9*1), the Vmax/Km ratio for celecoxib methyl hydroxylation was reduced by 34% and 90% in the presence of recombinant CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3, respectively. These data indicated that the amino acid substitution at position 359 (Ile to Leu) elicited a more pronounced effect on the metabolism of celecoxib than did a substitution at position 144 (Arg to Cys). The Vmax/Km ratio was also decreased in microsomes of livers genotyped CYP2C9*1/*2 (47% decrease, mean of two livers), or CYP2C9*1/*3 (59% decrease, one liver). In all cases, these changes were largely reflective of a decrease in Vmax, with a minimal change in Km. Based on simulations of the in-vitro data obtained with the recombinant CYP2C9 proteins, it was anticipated that the pharmacokinetics of celecoxib (as a much as a five-fold increase in plasma AUC) would be altered (versus CYP2C9*1/*1 subjects) in subjects genotyped heterozygous or homozygous for the CYP2C9*2 (Cys144) or CYP2C9*3 (Leu359) allele. In a subsequent clinical study, the AUC of celecoxib was increased (versus CYP2C9*1/*1 subjects) approximately 2.2-fold (range, 1.6-3-fold) in two CYP2C9*1/*3 subjects and one CYP2C9*3/*3 subject receiving a single oral dose (200 mg) of the drug. In contrast, there was no significant change in celecoxib AUC in two subjects genotyped CYP2C9*1/*2.