Dynamic measurements of three-dimensional scapular kinematics: a validation study

J Biomech Eng. 2001 Apr;123(2):184-90. doi: 10.1115/1.1351892.


The validation of two noninvasive methods for measuring the dynamic three-dimensional kinematics of the human scapula with a magnetic tracking device is presented. One method consists of simply fixing a sensor directly to the acromion and the other consists of mounting a sensor to an adjustable plastic jig that fits over the scapular spine and acromion. The concurrent validity of both methods was assessed separately by comparison with data collected simultaneously from an invasive approach in which pins were drilled directly into the scapula. The differences between bone and skin based measurements represents an estimation of skin motion artifact. The average motion pattern of each surface method was similar to that measured by the invasive technique, especially below 120 degrees of elevation. These results indicate that with careful consideration, both methods may offer reasonably accurate representations of scapular motion that may be used to study shoulder pathologies and help develop computational models.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomechanical Phenomena
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Magnetics*
  • Male
  • Movement / physiology
  • Reference Values
  • Scapula / physiology*
  • Scapula / physiopathology*
  • Shoulder Impingement Syndrome / physiopathology