Our previously published results indicated that dietary treatment with oligofructose or inulin inhibited malignant tumor growth in experimental animals. Thus it appeared to be interesting to investigate whether the same treatment could have a positive influence on tumor chemotherapy. The chemotherapy-potentiating effect of 15% oligofructose or inulin incorporated into the basal diet for experimental animals was investigated on a transplantable mouse liver tumor. This dietary adjuvant therapy was started seven days before intraperitoneal transplantation of transplantable liver tumor and was continued until the end of experiments. A single, subtherapeutic dose of six different cytotoxic drugs commonly utilized in treatment of human cancer was intraperitoneally injected 48 hours after tumor transplantation. In all experiments, dietary oligofructose or inulin significantly potentiated the therapeutic effects of six different cytotoxic drugs. Such dietary treatment potentiating cancer chemotherapy could be introduced into classical protocols of human cancer treatment as a new, nontoxic, and easily applicable adjuvant cancer therapy without any supplementary risk for patients.