Purpose: To evaluate the variables that influence visual acuity and visual improvement after macular hole surgery.Methods: Our study included 421 eyes in which macular holes were successfully closed after surgery and followed up at least 1 year after the last surgery. Surgical techniques were conventional methods (Group 1: 350 eyes) with retinal pigment scalping of the macular hole basis added in the refractory cases (Group 2: 71 eyes). The variables used for the multiple regression were gender, age, preoperative visual acuity, hole stage, duration of symptoms, hole size, and axial length.Results: The variables that most influenced postoperative visual acuity were as follows: Group 1: gender (r = -0.011, P =.016), age (r = -0.17, P =.005), preoperative visual acuity (r = 0.51, P <.0001), duration of symptoms (r = -0.015, P <.0001), and axial length (r = -0.090, P =.045). Group 2: age (r = -0.18, P =.047), and preoperative visual acuity (r = 0.47, P <.0001).Conclusions: The variables that influenced visual acuity and visual improvement after macular hole surgery were common. In Group 1: gender, age, preoperative visual acuity, duration of symptoms, and axial length; in Group 2: age and preoperative visual acuity.