Epidermal growth factor induces Gadd45 (growth arrest and DNA damage inducible protein) expression in A431 cells

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001 Jan 26;1517(2):250-6. doi: 10.1016/s0167-4781(00)00287-6.


Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor over-expressing, p53-deficient A431 cells response to toxic dose of EGF by G1 arrest and apoptosis. Applying cDNA expression array technology we demonstrated that EGF increased the levels of Gadd45 mRNA. Northern blot and Western blot analyses confirmed that both Gadd45 mRNA and protein were increased. Concurrently half-lives of Gadd45 mRNA and protein also increased. Nuclear run-on experiments did not show a large increase of Gadd45 mRNA transcription rate. Gadd45 mRNA and protein started to increase after 1 h of EGF treatment and remained high for up to 10 h. We have also confirmed previous studies which showed that in EGF-stimulated A431 cells p21(Cip1/Waf1) (cyclin-dependent kinase interacting protein 1) was up-regulated within the same time frame. Thus it appears that in addition to inducing G2 arrest by directly disrupting Cdc2/Cyclin B1 complex in genotoxic-stressed cells, Gadd45 may also participate in G1 arrest in growth factor overexposed cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Blotting, Western
  • Cell Cycle
  • Cell Line
  • DNA Damage*
  • DNA, Complementary / biosynthesis
  • Epidermal Growth Factor / pharmacology*
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Humans
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Protein Biosynthesis*
  • Proteins / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • DNA, Complementary
  • GADD45 protein
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Proteins
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Epidermal Growth Factor