Epstein-Barr Virus Lymphoproliferative Diseases (EBV-LPD) can affect patients receiving allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplant. They are caused by impairment of EBV specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response due to the immunosuppression that follows these procedures. Despite different therapies LPD can still have a rapid and lethal course. A promising solution is the application of adoptive immunotherapy approaches such as ex vivo generated EBV-specific CTLs for prevention and therapy. Their infusion has been demonstrated to be safe and effective in allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplant recipients and their use after allogeneic solid organ transplant is also under evaluation.