In a previous study, we demonstrated that the forkhead associated (FHA) domain of pKi-67 interacts with the novel kinesin-like protein, Hklp2 (Sueishi, M., Takagi, M., and Yoneda, Y. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 28888-28892). In this study, we report on the identification of a putative RNA-binding protein of 293 residues as another binding partner of the FHA domain of pKi-67 (referred to as NIFK for nucleolar protein interacting with the FHA domain of pKi-67). Human NIFK (hNIFK) interacted with the FHA domain of pKi-67 (Ki-FHA) efficiently in vitro when hNIFK was derived from mitotically arrested cells. In addition, a moiety of hNIFK was co-localized with pKi-67 at the peripheral region of mitotic chromosomes. The hNIFK domain that interacts with Ki-FHA was mapped in the yeast two-hybrid system to a portion encompassed by residues 226-269. In a binding assay utilizing Xenopus egg extracts, it was found that the mitosis-specific environment and two threonine residues within this portion of hNIFK (Thr-234 and Thr-238) were crucial for the efficient interaction of hNIFK and Ki-FHA, suggesting that hNIFK interacts with Ki-FHA in a mitosis-specific and phosphorylation-dependent manner. These findings provide a new clue to our understanding of the cellular function of pKi-67.