Campylobacter jejuni are a common cause of human diarrheal illness. Previous work has demonstrated that C. jejuni synthesize a novel set of proteins upon coculturing with epithelial cells, some of which are secreted. The secreted proteins have been collectively referred to as Campylobacter invasion antigens (Cia proteins). Metabolic labeling experiments revealed that Cia protein synthesis and secretion are separable and that secretion is the rate-limiting step of these processes. Additional work indicated that Cia protein synthesis is induced in response to bile salts and various eukaryotic host cell components. Host cell components also can induce Cia protein secretion. Culturing C. jejuni on plates supplemented with the bile salt deoxycholate retarded the inhibitory effect of chloramphenicol on C. jejuni invasion, as judged by the gentamicin-protection assay. These data suggest that the coordinate expression of the genes encoding the Cia proteins is subject to environmental regulation.