The aims of this study were: (1) to compare the diagnostic efficacy for celiac disease (CD) diagnosis of serum determination of anti-gliadin (AG) (IgA and IgG) and anti-endomysium (AE) with that of anti-transglutaminase (AtTG); and (2) to compare the accuracy of four different assays to measure AtTG. We studied 72 children: the histological diagnosis of CD was made in 38 cases and excluded in the remaining 34 children. In fasting sera we measured AE, AG-IgA and IgG, and AtTG, the latter with four different commercial kits (Eurospital, Medipan, Inova, Arnika). Moreover AtTG was measured in a group of 58 CD children after a gluten-free diet. AE was positive in all but 1 case of CD patients (sensitivity = 97%); false positive results were found in 1/34 controls (specificity = 97%). When a specificity of 95% was fixed, the sensitivities were 97% for AE, 83% for AG-IgA, and 63% for AG-IgG; the sensitivities of anti-tTG were 90, 84, 84, and 75% when measured with Eurospital, Medipan, Inova, and Arnika kits respectively. The new AtTG seems to be accurate enough to be proposed as a noninvasive diagnostic tool for CD diagnosis; the 4 kits analyzed showed similar diagnostic efficacy.