Reports of outbreaks of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) among human immunodeficiency virus-negative immunocompromised patients have suggested a person-to-person transmission of P. carinii. In this study, 17 bronchoalveolar lavage isolates from patients in 3 PCP outbreaks were genotyped, 2 in renal transplant recipients and 1 outbreak among patients with haematological disorders. Genotypes in the P. carinii sp. f. hominis (P. carinii f.sp. hominis) mt large subunit ribosomal RNA site 85 were detected by 2 methods: direct sequencing and 3 different allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assays. Although limited data on patient contacts were available, the detected P. c. hominis genotypes do not support person-to-person transmission as the predominant transmission route of P. carinii in humans.