These recommendations replace previous recommendations for the prevention of bloodborne virus infections in hemodialysis centers and provide additional recommendations for the prevention of bacterial infections in this setting. The recommendations in this report provide guidelines for a comprehensive infection control program that includes a) infection control practices specifically designed for the hemodialysis setting, including routine serologic testing and immunization; b) surveillance; and c) training and education. Implementation of this program in hemodialysis centers will reduce opportunities for patient-to-patient transmission of infectious agents, directly or indirectly via contaminated devices, equipment and supplies, environmental surfaces, or hands of personnel. Based on available knowledge, these recommendations were developed by CDC after consultation with staff members from other federal agencies and specialists in the field who met in Atlanta on October 5-6, 1999. They are summarized in the Recommendations section. This report is intended to serve as a resource for health-care professionals, public health officials, and organizations involved in the care of patients receiving hemodialysis.