Investigation of an outbreak of ciprofloxacin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae using a simplified opa-typing method

Epidemiol Infect. 2001 Apr;126(2):219-24. doi: 10.1017/s0950268801005209.


Ciprofloxacin-resistant gonococci have been isolated from patients in the United Kingdom since 1993. Until recently, evidence has suggested that the majority of infections are not endemic but have been acquired abroad. In October 1999, increasing numbers of ciprofloxacin resistant isolates of the non-requiring auxotype were reported in Oldham and Rochdale (Northwest England). These and similar isolates from elsewhere in England and Wales were genetically characterized using a simplified opa-typing method (a non-radioactive PCR-RFLP method targeting the opa family of genes). Of 73 isolates studied, 24 had unique opa-types (10 from infections acquired abroad), whilst the remaining 49 were indistinguishable (none were known to be acquired abroad). This cluster included 31 isolates from Oldham and Rochdale, 16 from elsewhere in the north of England, and 2 from Southern England and South Wales with known epidemiological links to cases from Manchester and Rochdale respectively. This study illustrates the potential for spread of an antibiotic resistant clone of N. gonorrhoeae both locally and nationally and demonstrates that endemic acquisition of ciprofloxacin-resistant gonococci is now a significant problem in the United Kingdom.

MeSH terms

  • Antigens, Bacterial / genetics*
  • Antigens, Bacterial / isolation & purification
  • Ciprofloxacin / pharmacology*
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial
  • Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
  • Gonorrhea / epidemiology
  • Gonorrhea / genetics
  • Humans
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae / drug effects
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae / genetics*
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae / isolation & purification
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • United Kingdom / epidemiology


  • Antigens, Bacterial
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • opacity proteins
  • Ciprofloxacin